Related Party Disclosure Requirements: Ensuring Transparency in Financial Reporting

related party disclosure requirements ensuring transparency in financial reporting

Did you know that non-compliance with related party disclosure requirements can lead to fines of up to $500,000 and imprisonment for up to 20 years? This startling fact underscores the critical importance of understanding and adhering to these regulations, which aim to promote financial transparency and protect investors from potential conflicts of interest arising from transactions between affiliated parties.

Key Takeaways:

  • Related parties are individuals or entities with control, joint control, or significant influence over the reporting entity.
  • Related party disclosure requirements mandate the disclosure of the nature and extent of transactions with affiliated parties.
  • US GAAP and IFRS require the disclosure of all material related party transactions, while the SEC sets a $120,000 threshold for disclosure.
  • Related party disclosures are crucial for maintaining financial transparency, exposing potential conflicts of interest, and deterring financial fraud.
  • Non-compliance with disclosure requirements can lead to severe consequences, including substantial fines, criminal charges, civil lawsuits, and reputational damage.
  • Companies must prioritize compliance by implementing robust internal controls and fostering a culture of transparency and accountability.

What is “related party” according to accounting standards?

According to both US GAAP (ASC 850) and IFRS (IAS 24), a related party is a person or entity that is related to the reporting entity. This includes:

  1. Individuals with control, joint control, or significant influence over the entity
  2. Close family members of those individuals
  3. Entities under common control or joint control
  4. Associates and joint ventures
  5. Post-employment benefit plans for the entity’s employees
  6. Entities providing key management personnel services to the reporting entity or its parent

Essentially, related parties are those who can influence or be influenced by the reporting entity due to their relationship, potentially impacting the entity’s financial position and operating results. Identifying these relationships is crucial for ensuring transparent financial reporting and preventing misleading or incomplete disclosures.

What are the Related Parties Disclosure Requirements?

Related party disclosure requirements mandate that companies reveal the nature and extent of transactions with affiliated parties in their financial statements. These disclosures must include:

  1. The nature of the related party relationship
  2. A description of the transactions, including those with no amounts or nominal amounts
  3. The dollar amounts of transactions and their effects on the financial statements
  4. Amounts due to or from related parties and the terms and manner of settlement
  5. Compensation of key management personnel (under IAS 24)

For example, if a company purchases goods from a subsidiary, it must disclose the transaction amount, any outstanding balances, and the terms of the transaction. Similarly, if a company provides a loan to a director, it must reveal the loan amount, interest rate, and repayment terms.

The SEC also requires registered companies to disclose related party transactions exceeding $120,000 in which a related person has a direct or indirect material interest. Companies must implement robust internal controls to identify, track, and report these transactions accurately.

Are There Thresholds for Disclosure?

Are there thresholds for disclosure of related party transactions? The answer depends on the applicable accounting standards and regulations.

Under US GAAP (ASC 850), there is no specific materiality threshold for related party disclosures. Companies must disclose all material related party transactions, regardless of the dollar amount. The determination of materiality is based on whether the transaction could potentially influence the decisions of financial statement users.

However, the SEC does provide a threshold for disclosure. Regulation S-X, Item 404, requires the disclosure of any related party transaction exceeding $120,000 in which a related person has a direct or indirect material interest. This applies to all companies filing reports with the SEC, such as Form 10-K.

In contrast, IFRS (IAS 24) does not set a quantitative threshold for disclosure. Instead, it requires the disclosure of all material related party transactions. The materiality judgment is based on the potential impact of the transaction on the financial statements.

To ensure compliance with these requirements, companies should establish robust internal controls to identify, track, and disclose related party transactions accurately. This may involve implementing policies and procedures for reporting related party transactions, maintaining a comprehensive list of related parties, and conducting regular reviews and audits.

Why Related Party Disclosures are Important?

Related party disclosures are crucial for maintaining financial transparency and protecting investors. These disclosures provide essential information about transactions between a company and its affiliated parties, allowing stakeholders to assess the potential impact on the company’s financial position and performance.

Related party transactions may not always be conducted at arm’s length, meaning they might not reflect fair market terms. For example, a company could sell goods to a subsidiary at a price below market value, artificially inflating the subsidiary’s profits. Without proper disclosure, investors might be misled about the company’s true financial health.

Moreover, related party transactions can create conflicts of interest. Managers or directors might prioritize personal gain over the company’s best interests, leading to decisions that harm shareholders. By mandating disclosure, accounting standards help to expose these potential conflicts and enable investors to make informed decisions.

Related party disclosures also play a vital role in preventing financial fraud. Without transparency, companies could use related party transactions to manipulate financial statements, hide losses, or overstate profits. The Enron scandal, for instance, involved the use of complex related party transactions to conceal massive debts and losses, ultimately leading to the company’s collapse.

Potential Consequences of Non-Compliance

Non-compliance with related party disclosure requirements can lead to severe consequences for both companies and individuals. Failing to disclose material related party transactions accurately and completely violates accounting standards and securities laws, resulting in significant legal and financial repercussions.

The SEC can impose substantial fines on companies that violate disclosure rules. For example, in 2019, Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. paid a $600,000 penalty for failing to disclose perquisites provided to executive officers. Additionally, the SEC can require companies to restate their financial statements, damaging their reputation and eroding investor trust.

Moreover, individuals involved in non-compliance may face criminal charges. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 imposes penalties of up to $5 million in fines and 20 years in prison for knowingly falsifying or misrepresenting financial information, including related party disclosures. In the Enron scandal, several executives were convicted of fraud and conspiracy charges related to the abuse of related party transactions.

Non-compliance can also lead to civil lawsuits from investors who suffer losses due to misleading or incomplete disclosures. These lawsuits can result in significant settlements or judgments, further damaging a company’s financial position and reputation.

Beyond legal consequences, non-compliance can have severe business implications. Investors may lose confidence in a company’s management and financial reporting, leading to reduced investment and lower stock prices. Lenders may also view the company as a higher risk, resulting in less favorable borrowing terms or difficulty obtaining financing.


In conclusion, understanding and complying with related party disclosure requirements is essential for maintaining financial transparency, preventing fraud, and avoiding severe legal and business consequences. By prioritizing these disclosures, companies can foster trust with stakeholders and contribute to a more stable financial system. For more information, visit, your trusted resource for financial accounting guidance.


What are some examples of related party transactions?

Examples of related party transactions include sales or purchases of goods or services between a company and its subsidiary, loans or guarantees provided to directors or executives, and leasing arrangements between a company and an entity owned by a major shareholder.

How can companies identify related party transactions?

Companies can identify related party transactions by maintaining a comprehensive list of related parties, implementing policies and procedures for reporting these transactions, and conducting regular reviews and audits. Effective communication and collaboration among various departments, such as accounting, legal, and compliance, are also essential for identifying related party transactions.

What should companies do if they discover a previously undisclosed related party transaction?

If a company discovers a previously undisclosed related party transaction, it should promptly assess the materiality of the transaction and determine the appropriate course of action. This may involve disclosing the transaction in the current financial statements, restating previous financial statements, and implementing measures to prevent future non-compliance.

How do related party disclosure requirements differ between US GAAP and IFRS?

While both US GAAP (ASC 850) and IFRS (IAS 24) require the disclosure of material related party transactions, there are some differences. For example, IAS 24 specifically requires the disclosure of key management personnel compensation, whereas US GAAP does not have this explicit requirement. Additionally, the SEC has specific disclosure thresholds for US public companies.

What role do auditors play in ensuring compliance with related party disclosure requirements?

Auditors play a crucial role in ensuring compliance with related party disclosure requirements by assessing the adequacy of a company’s internal controls, testing the accuracy and completeness of related party disclosures, and communicating any deficiencies or material weaknesses to management and the audit committee. Auditors also provide an independent opinion on the financial statements, enhancing the credibility of related party disclosures.

Read more

Leave a Comment